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The Expansion of Space Itself (is a Balloon Myth)

SERIES: The Shell Universe
AUTHOR: Jim Schofield


This takes the “inflating Balloon” analogy of the expanding of Space itself, rather than an expanding Universe, and instead posits all observed phenomena upon a simple Expanding Shell Universe – a direct result of a Big Bang of finite duration. The resonances in this new model are much sounder than in the “Expansion of Space” idea, for it requires no mystical and unexplained growth of the “space between objects” to deliver what is otherwise not attributable to any normal laws or processes.

In addition, when coupled with the idea of the Paving of the Expanding Universe by so-called Empty Photons, this version of events also explains what we see if our Universe is not purely as it appears, but composed of both real and virtual images of light emitting objects – in other words with a significantly large illusory component. These extra virtual sources are explained as being produced by Totally Internal Reflection (or something very similar) at both the outer and the inner boundaries of such a shell Universe. Anomalies such as the Evenness of distribution of galaxies in our Universe require no Inflationary, faster than light, expansion episode. And by the cycling of light around a kind of massive “wave-guide” shell greatly longer propagation distances are delivered, along with greatly extended journeys in which Compton Scattering can produce significant red shifts in radiation.


1.The demonstration of the expansion of Space using a balloon is described, but it is transformed when applied to an expanding Universe of Shell Form. Yet, as distinct from the as yet unexplained prior use of this analogue, the features in the new application are down to the expansion of the Shell Universe itself, and not of an underlying Space.

2.The effects of Totally Internal Reflection upon what an observer within the Universe would see are shown to deliver an image of the Universe, which is largely illusory, though nevertheless developed from a real content and real conditions.

3.Considerations are also shown to deliver the apparent evenness of the observed illusory Universe, even though the actual Universe is by no means evenly spread.

4.Finally, the way to confirm or deny these conceptions is explained, which would also find the real boundaries of our actual Universe, and hence give a chance of explaining many currently wrongly explained phenomena from Dark Energy to the Cosmological Constant, and even Compton Scattering Red Shifts.

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